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용어 정리

Candela

Unit of luminous intensity. 1 candela is equal to 1 lumen per solid angle.

Capacitance

A property that measures the ability of a conductor to hold electrical charge, measured in farads (F).  Junction capacitance is related to the rise time of the photodiode. The smaller the capacitance, the shorter the rise time, and vice versa.

Cathode Ray Tube

Video display based on vacuum tube with electron gun and annular anodes at one end and a cathode and phosphor screen at the other. Charged plates or electromagnets deflect the electron beam such that the image is scanned line by line across the face of the tube. Signal response is nonlinear with input, gamma usually between 2 and 3. 

  See also Oscilloscope

Cavity

With interference filters, a spacer layer between two stacks of dielectric layers. The number of cavities determines the overall shape of the transmittance curve. Typically, interference filters use three cavities, resulting in steep slopes, improved blocking near the bandwidth, and relatively flat tops.

CDAR™ (Clear Display Anti-Reflection) Coating

A highly transmissive anti-reflection (AR) coating with transmission of 96 - 99% between 400 - 700nm.

CDRH Laser Class

A laser class standard administered by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, a division of the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration). It is an alternative to the IEC laser class standard used throughout Europe.

  See also IEC Laser Class

CE Certified

A European proof of conformity that allows manufacturers and exporters to circulate products freely within the European Union.  The letters "CE," French for "Conformite Europeenne," indicate that the manufacturer has satisfied all assessment procedures specified by law for its product. Products requiring the CE Mark in Europe include, but are not limited to: high voltage devices, toys, construction products, equipment that generates electromagnetic interference, personal protection Equipment, and Medical Devices.

Center Thickness (CT)

An optical measurement specified as the distance from a primary principal plane location to the end of an element. A PCX or PCV lens has a single principle plane, yielding a single CT; a DCX or DCV has two principle planes, yielding two CT values. 

  See also Principal Plane

Centering

Also known by centration or decenter, it is specified in terms of beam deviation. The amount of decenter is the physical displacement of the mechanical axis from the optical axis. 

Central Wavelength (CWL)

Typically used to denote the peak transmitting wavelength of a filter, it is the midpoint determined by the passband wavelengths where the transmittance is 50% of the peak (denoted by the Full-Width at Half Maximum).

  See also Filter , Bandwidth

Charge-Coupled Device (CCD)

감광성 사이트(photosensitive site)의 어레이로 구성된 실리콘 칩. 이미징 영역은 전하를 축적 및 저장하는 가로세로 열의 감광성 픽셀로 이루어집니다. CCD라는 용어는 광전자 패킷이 칩과 시프트 레지스터 주위로 이동하는 방식을 일컫습니다. 시프트 레지스터에 의해 각각의 세로 열이 분리되고, 픽셀의 전하가 세로 열로 전송됩니다. 시프트 레지스터를 통해 기기의 단일 픽셀부터 amplifier까지 연속적으로 전하가 판독됩니다. 본래의 아날로그 시그널을 바로 이용하거나 A/D 컨버터로 양자화합니다.   

Chief Ray (주광선)

기하 광학에서 chief ray는 광축 주위의 피사체와 이미지의 크기, 그리고 pupil의 위치를 정의합니다. 이는 피사체의 가장자리에서 시작하여 pupil의 입출부 중심을 지나 aperture stop까지 진행되는 광선을 의미합니다.

  See also Paraxial Rays , Marginal Ray

Chromatic Focal Shift

광축의 색수차를 측정하는 척도로서, 서로 다른 파장이 초점을 이루는 광축을 따라서 달라지는 위치의 정도를 정량화합니다.

Circular Polarizer

A polarizing component that uses a linear polarizer in combination with a retarder (waveplate). The retarder is used to introduce a wave shift between the orthogonal components of the polarized light. In this way, two equal components of light oscillating perpendicular to each other with a relative phase difference add as vectors to yield a rotating linear polarization state. If the amplitude components of the orthogonal states are not equal, the vector addition of the two components will produce an elliptical polarization. For this reason, the linearly polarized light is input into the retarder at 45° to the fast axis to ensure that both components are of equal amplitude. 

Cladding

A low refractive index material that surrounds the core of an optical fiber. The difference in index between the core and the cladding contains light traveling through the core, while also serving to protect the fiber against surface contaminant scattering.

Clear Aperture (CA)

빛이 통과할 수 있는 제한된 영역을 갖는 광학 또는 기계적 구성 요소의 어둡지 않은 부분. CA는 사용 가능한 영역을 축소하는 옵틱스 주변의 mounting ring 및 기타 부품들을 고려해 계산됩니다.

C-Mount

17.526mm flange distance를 보유하고 1” x 32 TPI thread에 장착되는 카메라와 렌즈의 규격.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)

A measure of the rate of change of the material's size due to a change in temperature.

Coherent Light

With respect to lasers, the amplifying laser medium produces coherent light because the process of stimulated emission produces additional photons with the same phase as the originator. Noise within the laser output is the result of spontaneous emissions which do not have the same characteristics as the stimulated emission. During oscillation, the spontaneous emission component will also be amplified and appear in the output as random noise.

  See also Laser

Cold Mirror

거울과 흡사한 필터(mirror-like filter)로서 적외선은 투과하고 가시광은 반사합니다. Hot Mirror 또한 참고하십시오.

Collimated Light

Ray bundle(광선속) 또는 beam of light(광선살)로서 다른 광선에 평행하는 모든 빛을 의미하며, 실제 무한대에 있는 무한히 작은 점광원에서 발생합니다. 이러한 빛은 절대 완벽하게 시준(collimated)되지 않음을 유념하십시오.

Collimation

Converting a diverging or converging beam of light into a parallel beam of light.  

Color Sensor

모자이크 필터(mosaic filter)를 사용하는 카메라 센서로서 입사광을 여러 개의 연속적 컬러로 분리합니다. 각각의 컬러는 서로 다른 그룹의 픽셀로 존재합니다. 이러한 센서는 컬러마다 존재하는 모든 픽셀을 사용하지 않기 때문에 필터링 프로세스 단계에서 일부 spatial resolution이 손실됩니다.

Color Temperature

광원과 결합된 (blackbody와 비교) 색체계 파라미터로서, 명확한 가시적 색상을 표시해 줍니다. 표시 단위로는 Kelvin을 사용합니다.

Colorimetry

A method used to measure color and to define the results of the measurement. It includes many factors such as an object's physical characteristics, the surrounding colors, the light source, and the sensor or viewer.

Coma

FOV에 걸쳐 배율에 변화를 일으키는 (이로 인해 이미지 사이즈도 달라짐) 광수차로서, 이미지에서 특징적으로 나타나는 비대칭적 blur를 유발합니다.

  See also Aberration

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)

상보성 금속 산화막 반도체 센서Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor). 이미징 센서의 한 유형으로서 개별 픽셀마다 전하-전압 변환이 이루어지며 A/D 컨버터로 다중 송신됨으로써 시그널이 판독됩니다. CCD에 비해 출력이 고르지 못하고, 전력 소모가 매우 낮지만, 시프트 레지스터가 적기 때문에 훨씬 더 높은 속도를 얻을 수 있습니다.

Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

An optical component which is designed to collect and concentrate distant light sources efficiently.  CPCs are used in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research among other applications requiring condensing a divergent light source.  

Computer Controlled Precision Polishing

Polishing technique for aspheric lenses which automatically adjusts the tool dwell parameters to polish away high spots where more polishing is needed.

Concentricity

For rotary stages, the maximum variance between a perfect circle and the path that the stage follows. 

Condenser Lens

A positive lens or set of lenses designed to collect light and project it evenly across an area. Commonly found in projector systems as part of the condenser lens portion. 

Confocal Microscopy (공초점 현미경)

Spatical filtering을 사용하는 현미경 기법으로서 초점 면보다 큰 시료에 존재하는 빛 중 초점이 맞지 않는 빛은 제거합니다. 피사체의 z-sectioning을 이용해 depth of field의 제어와 3D 표현 설정이 가능합니다.

Conjugate Distance

The distance along the optical axis of a lens from the principle plane of that lens to either the image plane (for an image conjugate) or the object plane (for an object conjugate). Lenses designed to focus at infinity have an infinite conjugate distance for the object and a finite conjugate distance for the image.

Continuously Variable Apodizing Filter

A type of neutral density filter with a gradient of optical densities which vary radially from the center. There are two configurations: high optical density in the center that decreases continuously to an uncoated edge, and high optical density on the edge that continuously decreases to an uncoated center.

Contrast

Comparison of shades of gray that define an object and its background.

Contrast, Optical

렌즈를 통해 촬영되는 피사체에서 특정 크기로 인접한 요소들 간의 차이를 정량화한 것.

Counterbore (C'bore)

A cylindrically enlarged end of a hole. Typically used to accept the head of a socket head cap screw, making the screw head accessible but not obstructive. 

Crosstalk

Loss of optical energy between two optical conductors.

  See also Optical Fiber

Crown Glass

One of two types of optical glass used in the manufacturing of achromatic lenses.  Crown glass is harder than flint glass and has a lower index of refraction and lower dispersion.

  See also Achromatic Lens , Flint Glass

CS-Mount

12.526mm flange distance를 보유하고 1” x 32 TPI thread에 장착되는 카메라와 렌즈의 규격. CS-mount lens는 C-mount camera와 함께 사용할 수 없습니다.

Cube Beamsplitter

A type of beamsplitter constructed of two cemented right angle prisms, one with a broadband multi-layer dielectric coating on the hypotenuse. 50% of incident light is transmitted, and 50% is reflected. Outside surfaces have an anti-reflection coating to reduce back reflections. No beam displacement occurs between the original and separated beams. The reflected and transmitted beams travel through the same amount of glass, so although the optical path length of each arm is increased, both paths are increased by the same amount. Their cubic shape makes cube beamsplitters easy to mount, thus suffering less from deformation due to mechanical stress.

Cut-Off Wavelength

In filter terminology, the wavelength at which the transmission decreases to 50% throughput in a shortpass filter. In fiber optics, the shortest wavelength at which a fiber transmits in single mode. Below the cut off several modes will propagate and the fiber is no longer single-, but multimode. In detector technology, the wavelength at which the detector response falls to a set percentage (usually 20 or 50 percent). 

  See also Filter , Cut-On Wavelength

Cut-On Wavelength

In filter terminology, the wavelength at which the transmission increases to 50% throughput in a longpass filter.

  See also Cut-Off Wavelength

Cylinder Lens

A type of lens that focuses light in only one dimension. Its profile is similar to a PCX lens (though PCV profiles also exist) and it can transform a point of light into a line image.

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